Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Trigonostemon nemoralis Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. 277. 1861; Bedd., Fl. Sylv. S. India 213. 1873 & Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 41, t. 182. 1874; Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 398. 1887; N.P.Balakr. & Chakrab. in Candollea 46(2): 623, f. 8. 1991; R.Gopalan in J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 23: 684, f. 2. 1999.


Shrubs or small trees; young shoots ochraceous sericeous; branchlets glabrous. Leaves crowded towards apices of branches (alternate to subopposite or appearing verticillate), elliptic to oblong-elliptic or narrowly so or obovate-elliptic to narrowly obovate, cuneate-attenuate at base and adaxially decurrent into petioles, minutely glandular-denticulate or serrulate along margins, acute-mucronate to acuminate at apex, 6 - 16 (- 20) x 3 - 6 cm, membranous to subchartaceous, glabrous, penninerved; lateral nerves 8 - 16 pairs; petioles (2 -) 4 – 10 mm long, bistipellate at apex; stipules subpersistent. Male inflorescences apparently unisexual, pseudoracemose, up to 18 cm long; pedicels ca 2 mm long; sepals suborbicular to orbicular-obovate, 1.5 - 2 x 0.8 - 1.5 mm, dorsally gibbous; petals ovate to oblong, 2 - 3 x 1 - 1.5 mm, red, appearing black when dry; disc shortly cupular or of 5 distinct glands; anthers 3; thecae 2, partially embedded in connectives and separated from one another; connectives fleshy, bilobed, somewhat triquetrous, coherent (forming a globose head as a whole), connate towards base forming a short (ca 0.5 mm long) stalk. Female inflorescences terminal and axillary, racemiform, up to 9 cm long; bracts as in male; pedicels 2 - 6 mm long; sepals ovate to oblong, 3 - 4 x 1.8 - 3 mm, dorsally gibbous; petals not seen, caducous(?); disc glands free or connate in a ring and lobed; ovary subglobose, ca 2 x 3 mm, 3-lobed, densely hirsute; styles simple or shortly bifid, ca 2 mm long. Fruits tricoccous, ca 1 x 1.2 cm, verruculose, puberulous.

Fl. & Fr. Sept.- May.

Distrib. India: Evergreen forests of Western Ghats, often along riverbanks, at 600 to 900 m altitudes. Tamil Nadu and Kerala.

Sri Lanka.




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