Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Cayratia trifolia (L.) Domin in Biblioth. Bot. 89: 370. 1927. Vitis trifolia L., Sp. Pl. 203. 1753. Cissus carnosa Lam., Encycl. 1: 31. 1783. C. cinerea Lam.; DC., Prodr. In 631. 1820. Vitis carnosa (Lam.) Wallich ex M. Lawson in Fl. Brit. India 1: 654. ] 875. Cissus trifolia (L.) K. Schum. in Schum. & Hollr., Fl. Kaiser Wilhelmsl. 71. 1889. Cayratia carnosa (Lam.) Gagnepain in Notul. Syst. 1: 347. 1911. C. carnosa (Lam.) Gagnepain var. Cinerea (Lam.) Gagnepain in Notul. Syst. (Paris) 1: 348.1911. Cayratia trifolia (L.) Domin var. cinerea (Lam.) Babu, Herb. Fl. Dehra Dun 108. 1977.

Asm.: Maimati, Marmarati; Beng.: Amallata, Bundal; Guj.: Khat- khatumbo, Tamanya; Hindi: Amalbel, Kassar, Ramchana; Kan.: Heggoli; Mal: Sorivalli; Mar.: Ambatbel, Kadamadavalli, Odi; Nep.: Jarilalahara; Punj.: Amalbel, Drukri, Gidardak, Karik, Vallur; Sans.: Aranyavasini,Atyamlaparni, Banastha, Kandura, Tikshna; Tel.: Kadepatige, Kamputige, Kurudinne, Mandulamaritige, Pulimada.

Climbing or spreading, herbaceous shrubs; branches slender, terete, sub-fleshy, pubescent to glabrous; tendrils wiry, branched. Leaves 3-foliolate, pubescent to glabrous; petioles 2-6 cm long; terminal leaflets broadly elliptic to ovate, 3-8 x 2-7 cm, acute to rounded at apex, cuneate to rounded at base, dentate-serrate to subentire at margins; petiolules 0.5-2.5 cm; lateral leaflets 2.5-7 x 2-6 cm, oblique, margins and apex as in terminal leaflets; petiolules 2-10 mm long. Inflorescences axillary or pseudo-terminal, divaricate cymes, 6-12 cm long; peduncles 2.5-8 cm long, pubescent. Flowers ca 2 mm long; pedicels 1.5-3 mm long, pubescent. Calyx cupular, subtruncate, pubescent. Petals ovate, ca 2 x 1.2 mm, puberulous. Stamens ca 1 mm long; anthers oblong. Disc fleshy, 4-lobed; lobes notched. Ovary ca 1.5 mm across; style subulate; stigma capitate. Berries obovoid-globose, ca 1 cm across, 3- 4-seeded. Seeds triangular-obovoid, ca 6 x 4.5 mm; adaxial surface with a longitudinal ridge and a pit on either side of it; abaxial surface with a linear chalaza and transverse ridges on sides.

Fl. & Fr. : Throughout the year.

Distrib. India: Almost throughout the country, at lower elevations in the hills.

Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh,. China, Myanmar. Indo-china, Malesia and Australia.

Uses. The root is astringent. Ground with black pepper, it is applied as poultice on boils. A poultice of leaves is applied to ulcers and yoke-sores of bullocks. Fomentation with a hot decoction of the roots or leaves is said to cause perspiration in case of high fever.

Chromosome number 2n=ca 98 (Shetty, B.V. in Curro Sci. 27: 358- 359. 1958 & in Bibliogr. Genet. 18: 167-272. 1959); 2n=80 [Vatsala, P. in La Cellule (Louvain) 61: 193-205. 1960; Mitra. K. & N. Datta in Taxon 16: 457. 1967- all sub Cayaratia carnosa Gagnepain]; 2n=80 [Patil, V.P. et al in Curro Sci. 49: 37-38 . 1980 sub Cissus trifolia (L.) K. Schum.]; 2n=120 (Patil, V.P. et al in Curro Sci. 49: 37-38. 1980- sub Cayratia carnosa Gagnepain).

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