Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Holigarna Buch.-Ham.

Trees; plants polygamous. Leaves simple, alternate, entire, petiolate; leaf bases with spur like deciduous or persistent appendages. Panicles axillary and terminal. Flowers both bisexual and male, bracteate, perigynous. Calyx 5-lobed, cupular, lobes imbricate. Petals 5, free valvate. Stamens 5. Disc 5- lobed, cupular. Carpels 3 - 5, syncarpous; ovary inferior, 1-lopuled, 1-ovuled; styles terminal, 3 - 5; stigma clavate. Drupes wholly or partly enclosed within obconic and turbinate hypocarp.

Restricted to India, Bangladesh and Myanmar; ca 7 species, all in India.

Literature. BENNET, S.S.R. & K.C. SAHNI (1976) A note on the name Holigarna grahamii. Indian For. 102: 89. KADAMBI, K. (1955) Holigarna arnottiana Hook.f. (Syn. H. longifolia Wight & Arn.). Indian For. 81: 103-106.


1a. Leaves quite glabrous beneath; Drupes fully enclosed by hypocarp 2
b. Leaves pubescent or tomentose beneath; Drupes half embeded within hypocarp 6
2a. Petiolar spurs persistent (two-pairs in number, glabrous) 6. Holigarna longifolia
b. Petiolar spurs caducous 3
3a. Drupes glabrous 1. Holigarna arnottiana
b. Drupes tomentose 4
4a. Flowers unisexual (plants dioicous); petals glabrous 5. Holigarna kuzii
b. Flowers both unisexual and bisexual (plants poligamous); petals pubescent 5
5a. Leaves obovate. apex obtuse; stigma simple 3. Holigarna ferruginea
b. Leaves spathulate, apex notched; stigma fiapod 7. Holigarna nigra
6a. Petiolar spurs early caducous; leaf apex atuntinate 2. Holigarna beddomei
b. Petiolar spurs persistent; leaf apex acute' 4. Holigarna grahamii

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