Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Lianas, shrubs or small trees. Leaves imparipinnate; leaflets 3 - 5 or more, mostly pellucid-glandular punctate, entire. Inflorescence terminal or axillary panicles. Flowers bisexual, 5-merous, fragrant. Sepals, petals and stamens punctate by glands appearing as dark dots in the herbarium specimens. Sepals slightly connate at the base, thick and fleshy. Petals free, pubescent or glabrous, sometimes glandular-ciliate at the margin. Stamens 10, united at base; inner whorl shorter and usually sterile to staminodial; filaments sparsely glandular-pubescent. Carpel 1; ovary and basal half of style pilose; stigma capitate. Fruits pod like, with persistent calyx, somewhat compressed, opening longitudinal1y, often stalked, apex with a short, triangular beak; pericarp dry, chartaceous to woody. Seed 1, bean shaped, shining black, basal part partly enveloped by a fleshy, yellow, 2-lobed arillode; endosperm absent.

Pantropical, mainly in S. America and S.E. Asia, ca 100 species, 10 in India.


1a. Twigs always glabrous 2
b. Twigs pubescent, at least at the young stage 5
2a. Sepals linear 4. Connarus nicobaricus
b. Sepals ovate to ovate-oblong or orbicular 3
3a. Leaflets with 3-5 pairs of nerves; sepals orbicular- obtuse, keeled 1. Connarus andamanicus
b. Leaflets with 5-8 pairs of nerves; sepals ovate to ovate-oblong, not keeled 4
4a. Leaflets ovate-elliptic to lanceolate, caudate acuminate 3. Connarus monocarpus
b. Leaflets oblong-lanceolate, obtusely acuminate 10. Connarus wightii
5a. Twigs densely tomentose with stellate hairs 6. Connarus parameswaranii
b. Twigs minutely ferruginous tomentose with simple hairs 6
6a. Petals linear, glabrous; pericarp glabrous within 2. Connarus kingii
b. Petals lanceolate-spathulate, glabrous punctate or tomentose; pericarp pubescent to tomentose or woolly within 7
7a. Leaflets ovate; follicles oblong 8. Connarus sclerocarpus
b. Leaflets oblong to elliptic-lanceolate; follicles ovoid to ellipsoid 8
8a. Follicles 4-6 cm long 7. Connarus planchonianus
b. Follicles less than 4 cm long 9
9a. Twigs tomentose at the tips only; follicles semi-ovoid, convex 5. Connarus paniculatus
b. Twigs tomentose throughout; follicles semi ellipsoid to pyriform 8. Connarus semidecandrus

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