Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Herbs. Leaves mostly alternate. Heads heterogamous with female florets (ray florets) 1 - 2-seriate, fertile; central disc florets sterile and another row fertile. Receptacle naked. Involucral bracts in one or two series, with scarious margins. Anthers appendaged at apex, sagittate at base with acute auricles or tails. Style branches or fertile flowers truncate, penicillate; undivided in sterile florets. Achenes irregular, incurved, often winged, epappose.

Mediterranean region, Europe, Africa, W. Asia; ca 30 species, 2 in India, one species widely cultivated.


1a. Achenes not beaked, dorsally muricate; ligules orange yellow 2. Calendula officinalis
b. Acnenes beaked, dorsally echinate; ligules sulphur yellow 1. Calendula arvensis

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