Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Calendula officinalis L., Sp. Pl. 921. 1753; Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3: 357. 1881.

Herbs, annual, erect, viscid pubescent. Stems angular, glandular hairy, particularly in terminal part. Leaves spathulate-obovate, semiamplexicaul at base, entire or remote denticulate, 3 - 6 x 1 - 2.5 cm. Heads pedunculate, orange yellow, 4 - 5 cmacross. Involucral bracts lanceolate, 1 - 1.2 cm long acute, glandular hairy, margin scarious. Ray florets 2 - 3-seriate, female, fertile; ligules 3-dentate, 2 - 3 cm long. Disc florets 0.5 - 0.7 cm long, sterile, 5-dentate. Anther bases sagittate. Style arms undivided. Achenes oblong, 1 - 1.5 cm long, curved, outer ones warty ribbed, inner ones prickly warty.

Fl. & Fr. March - May.

Distrib. India: Cultivated and often run wild near cultivated fields and fallows in Northern India, 500-900 m. Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.

China, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Europe.

Notes. A native of Mediterranean region, mostly grown for yellow or orange, ornamental flower heads.

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