Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Breea arvensis (L.) Less., Syn. Comp. 9. 1832. Serratula arvensis L., Sp. Pl. 820. 1753. Crisium arvense (L.) Scop., Fl. Carn. ed. 2, 2: 126. 1772. Cnicus arvensis (L.) Roth, Catalecta B. 1: 115. 1797. C. candicans Wallich, Cat. n. 2893. 1831

Beng.: Sialkanta; Eng.: Canada thistle.

Herbs, erect, 60 - 90 cm high. Stems many from base, usually simple, leafy, cobwebby tomentose above. Leaves sinuate or pinnatifid, 7.5 - 12.5 cm long, more or less woolly beneath. Heads solitary, fascicled or corymbose, variable; male ca 1.2 - 2.5 cm across, globose; female much longer, campanulate. Involucral bracts glabrate or cobwebby; outermost short, ovate or triangular-ovate, ending in a short spine; inner gradually longer with undulate, often recurved tips; innermost narrow, linear-lanceolate, scarious. Corolla purplish. Achenes smooth, shining. Pappus brownish white.

Fl. & Fr. Feb. May.

Distrib. India: Up to ca 1500 m. Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, W. Bengal and Bihar.

Asia, Europe and introduced in N. America.

Notes. Breea has been segregated from Cirsium on account of its unisexual florets and partial dioecy. This is a very variable species. The plant is used to coagulate milk.

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