Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Annual, rarely perennial, usually spiny. Leaves alternate, entire or pinnatifid, spinescent. Heads usually homogamous, solitary, ovoid or subglobose. Involucral bracts in many rows, imbricate, spiny, outer leaf like; inner dry, entire or with a short, fimbriate appendage. Receptacle flat. Florets all hermaphordite. Corolla yellow, white or purplish; tube slender; limb oblong, dilated at base, 5-cleft. Filaments usually densely hairy; anther bases sagittate; auricles connate; tails short, fimbriate. Style arms short or long. Achenes obovoid, 4-angled or compressed, glabrous; outer without pappus, coarsely rugose; inner more or less smooth, usually with pappus.

In mediterranean region, Africa, Asia; ca 13 species, 3 in India.

Literature. HANELT, M.P. (1962). Monographische Ubersicht der Ganung Carthamus L. (Compositae) Feddes Rep. 67: 41-180. PATHAK, M. & T.B. SABNIS, (1935). A note on the classification of Indian safflower. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 5: 705-714.


1a. Basal and cauline leaves not divided 3. Carthamus tinctorius
b. Basal leaves usually pinnatifid or pinnatisect 2
2a. Pappus absent 2. Carthamus oxyacantha
b. Pappus of narrow ciliate scales 1. Carthamus lanatus

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