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Chrozophora Neck. ex A.Juss., nom. & typ. cons.

Herbs or undershrubs, annual or perennial, monoecious, usually clothed with stellate tomentose hairs. Leaves spirally arranged, petiolate, simple, entire or lobed, often plicaterugose or plicate-bullate, rarely glabrous, often with 2 glands near petiole-apex beneath the base of leaf-blade; stipules caducous. Inflorescences short, dense, stalked or sessile racemes, axillary or terminal, bisexual with male flowers towards base and female flowers towards upper part. Male flowers: calyx closely adherent in bud, splitting into 5 lobes; petals 5, usually equal to sepals; disc inconspicuous, divided into small glands, united with petals and slightly adnate to the staminal column; stamens 4 - 15; filaments connate into a central column and branching off in 1 - 3 verticillate layers; anthers oblique, basi-dorsifixed, introrse; thecae parallel, contiguous, longitudinally dehiscing; pistillode absent. Female flowers: calyx campanulate, 5-lobed, valvate, persistent; petals 5, similar to sepals, usually much smaller than in male, sometimes setaceous, rarely obsolete; disc annular with 5 short wide prominent glands alternating with the petals; ovary on short gynophore, 3-locular; styles 3, erect, bifid; branches entire, spreading, red, rarely purplish red or orange; ovules solitary in each locule. Fruits at first fleshy, later capsular, 3-loculed, dehiscing septicidally and partly loculicidally into 3 bivalved cocci, usually tinctorial and red, purple or purplish white when ripe, tuberculate, clothed with stellate hairs or with flat pectinate or subentire scales; seeds 3, obovoid, angular, carunculate, often tuberculate; sarcotesta incomplete, thin, smooth or somewhat rugose; embryo flat; endosperm copious, fleshy; cotyledons broad, flat.

NE. tropical Africa, Mediterranean region, West Asia to India, Thailand, Indo-China and Java, ca 12 species; 4 species in India.

Literature. BALAKRISHNAN, N. P. (1973). Studies in Indian Euphorbiaceae - V: The genus Chrozophora Neck. Bull. Bot. Surv. India 15: 1 - 7. PRAIN, D. (1918). The genus Chrozophora. Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1918: 49 - 120. PAX, F. & K. HOFFMANN (1912) Euphorbiaceae - Acalypheae- Chrozophorineae. In Engl., Das Pflanzenreich IV.147.VI (heft 57): 1 - 142. VAN WELZEN, P. (1999). Revision and phylogeny of subtribes Chrozophorinae and Doryxylinae (Euphorbiaceae) in Malesia and Thailand. Blumea 44: 411 – 436.


1a. Ovary and fruits lepidote, never stellate-pubescent 2
b. Ovary and fruits stellate-pubescent, never lepidote 3
2a. Leaves not much longer than broad; ripe carpels reddish purple 1. Chrozophora hierosolymitana
b. Leaves twice as long as broad; ripe carpels bluish purple 2. Chrozophora oblongifolia
3a. Leaves both radical and cauline, eglandular at base; stigmas orange; fruits grey or black, non- tinctorial when wetted 3. Chrozophora prostrata
b. Leaves cauline only, 2-glandular at base; stigmas red; fruits purple, tinctorial when wetted 4. Chrozophora rottleri

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