Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

JSP Page
Chrozophora rottleri (Geiseler) A.Juss. ex Spreng., Syst. Veg. 3: 850. 1826. Croton rottleri Geiseler, Croton. Monogr. 54. 1807. Chrozophora plicata auct. non (Vahl) A.Juss. ex Spreng., 1826: Voigt, Hort. Suburb. Calcutt. 156. 1846; Prain, Bengal Pl. 994. 1903. C. plicata (Vahl) A.Juss. ex Spreng. var. rottleri (Geiseler) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 747. 1866. C. tinctoria auct. non (L.) A.Juss., 1824: Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 408. 1887, p. p.


Guj.: Alchhiyo, Kalo-ochrad; Hindi: Shadevi; Kan.: Angamenasu, Gurugu; Kon.: Suravalli; Mar.: Suryavarti.

Herbs or undershrubs, erect, up to 60 cm high, densely hispid or stellate-tomentose. Leaves cauline, broadly ovate-orbicular to oblong or elliptic-lanceolate, truncate or cuneate at base, sinuate-toothed or undulate-crenate along margins, often trilobed, rounded or subacute at apex of lobes, 2.5 - 7.5 (- 10) x 2 - 6 (- 9) cm, densely tomentose on both sides, 2-glandular beneath at the base of the midrib; petioles 1 - 10 cm long. Inflorescences axillary or terminal bracteate racemes, 2.5 - 9 cm long; bracts linear, ca 3 mm long, caducous. Male flowers: subsessile, crowded at upper part of racemes; calyx lobes 5, 3 - 4 x ca 1.2 mm; petals 5, elliptic-oblong, 3.6 - 3.8 x 1.5 - 1.6 mm; disc obscure; stamens 5 - 15; filaments connate below into 3.2 - 3.7 mm long column with 1 - 3 series of free filaments, the outer ones short; anthers oblong, ca 1 mm long. Female flowers: green, ca 3 mm across, 4 – 8 arranged at lower part of racemes; pedicels 1.5 - 3 mm long, elongating in fruit up to 11 mm; calyx-lobes 5, narrow, 1.5 - 2 x 0.5 - 0.8 mm; petals 5, narrow, 1.4 - 2 x ca 0.5 mm or obsolete; disc of 5 short broad glands alternating with petals; ovary ovoid, 2.5 - 3 x 2 - 3 mm; styles 3, each bifid, 2 - 2.3 mm long. Fruits almost fleshy when fresh, capsular when dry, subglobose, 7 - 9 x 5 - 8 mm, densely stellate tomentose, reddish purple when mature, tinctorial when wetted; stalk 5 - 10 mm long; seeds estrophiolate, globose, ca 3 mm in diam.

Fl. & Fr. Dec. - Aug.

Distrib. India: Wastelands, open places, near cultivated fields, roadsides, in dry and wet places from plains to 1000 m. Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Assam, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Andaman & Nicobar Islands.

Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand and Java.

Uses. The fruits when wetted yield a blue dye. The leaves find use in the treatment of skin diseases on necks of horses. The seeds are cathartic. The plant is emetic and drastic corrosive.

Notes. Chromosome number: 2n = 22 (Datta, Taxon 16: 341 - 450. 1967); 2n = 44 (Sharma, Sci. & Cult. 21: 270 - 271. 1955, as C. tinctoria).




JSP Page
  • Search