Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Herbs, shrubs, climbers or small trees. Leaves usually alternate, rarely opposite. Heads homogamous. Involucral bracts few-many, variously shaped. All florets bisexual; corolla reddish purple, white, blue but never yellow, tubular (except Stokesia). Anthers cleft at the base. Style branches subulate, hairy. Achenes ribbed, angled or terete, glabrous, pubescent or silky, glandular or eglandular. Pappus uniseriate or biseriate, usually copious, rarely few, coroniform or absent, setose, occasionally the outer pappus hairs paleaceous or very short.

Mainly distributed in Tropical America, Tropical Africa and S.B. Asia; ca 70 genera and 1500 species, 8 genera and 68 species in India.

Literature. BENTHAM, G. & J.D. HOOKER (1873). Vernoniaceae. Genera Planltarum 2: 165 - 238. ELIAS THOMAS, S. (1975). Vernoniinae. Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 62: 857 - 873. HENRY, A.N., G.R. KUMARI & V. CHITHRA (1987); Flora of Tamil Nadu. India. Analysis Vol.II. Coimbatore. RAU. M. A. & B.M. NARAYANA (1983). A review of the tribe Vernonieae in South India. Bull. Bot. Surv. India 25: 19 - 25.


1a. Pappus absent 2
b. Pappus present 3
2a. Achenes 4-5 angled, thickened on the ribs or angles 3. Ethulia
b. Achenes 10-ribbed 1. Adenoon
3a. Pappus leathery, coroniform 7. Struchium
b. Pappus of 1-many hairs 4
4a. Heads in glomerules; florets 1-5 5
b. Heads distinct; florets 1-many 6
5a. Glomerules bracteate; involucral bracts in 2-series; pappus bristles straight 2. Elephantopus
b. Glomerules ebracteate; involucral bracts 4-seriate; 2 pappus bristles bent doubly 6. Pseudelephuntopus
6a. Achenes smooth, shining, ecostate 4. Lamprachaenium
b. Achenes angled, ribbed or terete, not shining or if shining then prominently nerved 7
7a. Outer involucral bracts usually leafy; pappus fugacious (involucral bracts not leafy in P. hookeri but then pappus single) 5. Phyllocephalum
b. Outer involucral bracts not leafy (except V. anthelmintica); pappus long, copious 8. Vernonia

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