Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Vernonia Schreb.

Herbs, shrubs or trees, rarely scandent; branches ribbed, sulcate or grooved, glabrous, variously pubescent, tomentose or woolly. Leaves alternate, simple, variously shaped, membranous, chartaceous, rigid, glabrous to variously pubescent,. villous or tomentose, entire, undulate, serrate or crenate dentate. Inflorescence axillary, terminal, corymbose or paniculate, rardy heads paired or solitary. Heads discoid with 1-many florets. Involucre narrowly campanulate, subcylindric to broadly hemispheric; bracts few-many-seriate, closely to laxly imbricate; outer series usually shorter, progressivel y increasing in length. Corolla pink, purple or violet, regulnr, 5-lobed, glandular or eglandular. Stamens 5; anthers sagittate at base, rounded or subacute at apex, appendaaed. Style arms subulate, hairy. Achenes terete, angled, ribbed or winged, glabrous, pubescent, silky villous, glandular or eglandular. Pappus hairs white, yellowish or reddish, uniseriate or biseriate; outer short or minute or paleaceous rarely longer; inner longer, barhed, rarely paleaceous.

Chiefly tropical and mostly American; ca 1000 species, 52 in India.


1a. Scandent 2
b. Erect herbs, shrubs or trees 6
2a. Heads 3-5-flowered; pappus hairs white 20. Vernonia elliptica
b. Heads more than 5-flowered; pappus hairs greyish or reddish 3
3a. Achenes glabrous 51. Vernonia vagans
b. Achenes puberulous or pubescent 4
4a. Outer pappus hairs absent; receptacle fulvoull pubescent 6. Vernonia andersoni
b. Outer pappus hairs present; receptacle glabrous 5
5a. Involucral bracts puberulous; pappus hairs reddish 11. Vernonia blanda
b. Involucral bracts ciliate; pappus hairs greyish 5. Vernonia andamanica
6a. Trees 7
b. Herbs or shrubs 13
7a. Heads 1-flowered (very rarely 2-flowered) 8
b. Heads more than 1-flowered 9
8a. Leaves obovate-elliptic. densely brownish tomentose beneath 52. Vernonia vivekanathanii
9a. Leaves densely white woolly beneath 17. Vernonia comorinensis
b. Leaves glabrous or pubescent but not while woolly 10
10a. Pappus hairs reddish 49. Vernonia talaumifolia
b. Pappus hairs whitish or yellowish 11
11a. Achenes glandular 50. Vernonia travancorica
b. Achenes eglandular 12
12a. Achenes puberulous; pappus uniscriate 8. Vernonia arborea
b. Achenes with few scattered hairs; pappus biseriate 53. Vernonia volkameriaefolia
13a. Achenes glabrous 14
b. Achenes silky pubescent or puberulous 36
14a. Achenes 10-ribbed 15
b. Achenes 3-5-angled or ribbed 26
15a. Leaves white tomentose beneath 16
b. Leaves green beneath. scabrid. but not white tomentose 19
16a. Achenes glandular 17
b. Achenes eglandular 18
17a. Leaves crenulate-serrate; pappus hairs biseriate 2. Vernonia anaimudica
b. Leaves faintly serrate in the upper half only; pappus hairs uniseriate 22. Vernonia fysoni
18a. Leaves sessile; pappus hairs reddish, or the outer row short 24. Vernonia heynei
b. Leaves petioled or subsessile; pappus hairs yellowish, outer series absent 25. Vernonia indica
19a. Leaves amplexicaul, subauriculate 28. Vernonia meeboldii
b. Leaves not as above 20
20a. Heads 5-flowered 19. Vernonia divergens
b. Heads more than 5-flowerd 21
21a. Involucral bracts araneous 37. Vernonia pulneyensis
b. Involucral bracts not araneous 22
22a. Heads less than 1 cm across, 6-12-flowered 42. Vernonia saligna
b. Heads more than 1 cm across, 10-30-flowerd 23
b. Leaves membranous; branches ribbed and grooved 24
24a. Involucral bracts acute, apiculate or obtuse; outer ovate 31. Vernonia ornata
b. Involucral bracts long awned or obtuse and mucronate 25
25a. Achenes glandular; involucral bracts acuminate 34. Vernonia pectiniformis
b. Achenese eglandular; outer involucral bracts filiform 36. Vernonia peninsularis
26a. Achenes winged 29. Vernonia multibracteata
b. Achenes not winged 27
27a. Outer pappus paleaceous 28
b. Outer pappus setose or absent 32
28a. Achenes glandular 29
b. Achenes eglandular 31
29a. Achenes trigonous 23. Vernonia gossypina
b. Achenes 4-5-angled 30
30a. Leaves acute 26. Vernonia malabarica
b. Leaves obtuse 12. Vernonia bourdillonii
31a. Leaves sessile, obtuse 43. Vernonia salvifolia
b. Leaves petioled, acute 17. Vernonia comorinensis
32a. Leaves appressedly golden pubescent beneath; outer pappus hairs very short 3. Vernonia anamallica
b. Leaves without golden pubescence beneath; outer pappus either very distinct or absent 33
33a. Pappus hairs reddish 27. Vernonia mastersii
b. Pappus hairs white 34
34a. Branches greyish villous; leaves silky villous, glandular beneath 33. Vernonia patula
b. Branches ferruginous or rusty pubescent; nerves rough hairy or thickly rusty tomentose beneath 35
35a. Leaves ovate, acute or acuminate, Serrate 44. Vernonia setigera
b. Leaves elliptic or obovate, obtuse-rotundate 13. Vernonia bourneana
36a. Outer involucral bracts foliaceous. 7. Vernonia anthelmintica
b. Outer involucral bracts not foliaceous 37
37a. Leaves membranous 38
b. Leaves not membranous 46
38a. Pappus hairs reddish 39
b. Pappus hairs white or straw coloured 41
39a. Leaves subsessile; involucral bracts numerous, acicular, outer subulate 48. Vernonia subsessilis
b. Leaves distinctly petioled; involucral bracts few, outer obtuse 40
40a. Achenes glandular 21. Vernonia extensa
b. Achenes eglandular 31. Vernonia ornata
41a. Stems tetragonous 40. Vernonia rauii
b. Stems terete or striate 42
42a. Outer pappus paleaceous 4. Vernonia anceps
b. Outer pappus hairs setose 43
43a. Achenes glandular 44
b. Achenes eglandular 45
44a. Leaves gland-dottet; outer involucral bracts long aristate 36. Vernonia peninsularis
b. Leaves not gland dotted; outermost involucral bracts minute 35. Vernonia peguensis
45a. Heads more than 1 cm across; involucral bracts araneose 30. Vernonia nayarii
b. Heads less than 1 cm across; involucral bracts not araneose 15. Vernonia cinerea
46a. Heads less than 1 cm across 47
b. Heads more than 1 cm across 54
47a. Outer pappus paleaccous; heads solitary or paired 39. Vernonia ramaswamii
b. Outer pappus hairs subulate, setose or absent; heads more than 2 48
48a. Leaves sessile, spathulate 14. Vernonia cinerascens
b. Leaves petioled, lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate, elliptic, obovate or ovate-rhomboid 49
49a. Achenes glandular 50
b. Achenes eglandular 51
50a. Leaves ovate, serrate, acute-acuminate 44. Vernonia setigera
b. Leaves elliptic, elliptic or obovate, crenate, obtuse-rotundate 13. Vernonia bourneana
51a. Stems and leaves densely white tomentose 1. Vernonia albicans
b. Stems and leaves glabrous, pubescent or fulvous but not white tomentose 52
52a. Involucral bracts obtuse; achenes 10-ribbed 16. Vernonia clivorum
b. Involucrul bracts acute, almost awn tipped; achenes terete 53
53a. Leaves undulately toothed; outer pappus hairs long 15. Vernonia cinerea
b. Leaves sharply serrate; outer pappus hairs very short 18. Vernonia conyzoides
54a. Plants dwarf, up to 20 cm high; leaves linear, erect 41. Vernonia revoluta
b. Plants tall, leaves spreading 55
55a. Outer pappus hairs paleaceous 4. Vernonia anceps
b. Outer pappus hairs setose or absent 56
56a. Involucral bracts numerous, rigid 57
b. Involucral bracts few 58
b. Heads many, corymbose or panicled 48. Vernonia subsessilis
58a. Achenes yellow glandular 35. Vernonia peguensis
b. Achenes eglandular 59
59a. Plants glabrous; leaves sessile 10. Vernonia beddomei
b. Plants scabrid or pubescent at least in the upper part; leaves subsessile 60
60a. Involucral bracts pilose 32. Vernonia parryae
b. Involucral bracts not as above 61
61a. Achenes villous all over 9. Vernonia attenuata
b. Achenes hairy between the ribs only 38. Vernonia pyramidale

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