Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Herbs, perennial. Leaves both radical and cauline; radical leaves with long and slender or short and stout petiole, broadly orbicular to reniform; cauline leaves broadly ovate-orbicular to reniform with large vaginate sheathing base. Inflorescence racemose, corymbose, thyrsoid or solitary, on long peduncle. Capitula bright yellow, radiate, many-flowered, bracteolate or ebracteolate. Involucre narrowly campanulate or obconic; bracts uniseriate, of two forms, the narrower outer one overlapping both the margins of the broader inner, connate to subconnate at the base. Receptacle flat, naked. Ray florets in one series, female, ligulate; ligules often bifid. Disc florets tubular, hermaphrodite, 5-lobed. Style arms of disc florets long, obtuse, pubescent. Achenes cylindrical, rostrate, ribbed, glabrous or rarely hairy. Pappus white, stramineous or reddish, multiseriate.

A Genus of European-Asiatic distribution; ca 150 species, 10 in India.

Literature. HANDEL MAZZETTI, H. (1938). Die Chinesischen Arten der Gattung Ligularia. Bot. Jahrb. Engler 69: 95-142. A systematic study.


1a. Inflorescence corymbose 2
b. Inflorescence racemose or rarely with solitary capitula 7
2a. Capitula discoid 2. Ligularia dux
b. Capitula radiate 3
3a. Leaves reniform or broadly orbicular, cordate 4 0
b. Leaves palmately lobed 6. Ligularia japonica
4a. Ray floret only one 9. Ligularia thomsoni
b. Ray floerts more than one 5
5a. Leaves greyish-white, velvety tomentose beneath; capitula with 3 - 7 florets 7. Ligularia kingiana
b. Leaves glabrous on the lower surface; capitula with more than 7 florets 6
6a. Achenes 2 mm long 1. Ligularia amplexicaulis
b. Achenes 5-6 mm long 8. Ligularia pachycarpa
7a. Capitula arrangedd in a terminal, conical raceme; pappus red, very short, coroniform 5. Ligularia jacquemontiana
b. Capitula solilary or arranged in a terminal elongated raceme, pappus of hairs 8
8a. Radical leaves oblanceolate; capitula broadly campanulate, arranged in lax raceme; 10. Ligularia virgaaurea
b. Radical leaves reniform, ovate-cordate, hastate. Capitula narrowly campanulate, solitary or many subsecund or pendulous, arranged in a raceme 9
9a. Capitula subsecund or pendulous, numerous. 3. Ligularia fischeri
b. Capitula not pendulous, solitary or 2-14 4. Ligularia hookeri

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