Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Synotis (C.B. Clarke) C. Jeffrey & Y.L. Chen

Herbs or undershrubs, perennial, rhizomatous, erect or scrambling; stems both vegetative and flowering, usually leafless in the lower part during flowering time. Leaves rosulate or subrosulate at the base of the flowering stems, simple, broadly ovate, cordate or narrow oblong-lanceolate, mucronulate, serrate, petioled or sessile, usually auricled at the base. Inflorescence terminal and axillary, lax to dense, simple or compound corymb. Capitula heterogamous, and radiate or homogamous disciform and discoid, cylindrical to campanulate, bracteolate or rarely ebracteolate, peduncled or subsessile. Involucral bracts 2 - 15, free, herbaceous, with scarious margins. Ray florets yellow, absent or 1 - 20, conspicuous or inconspicuous, 1 - 6-veined, 3 - 5-dentute. Disc florets yellow, numerous, tubular; corolla 5 - 6-lobed. Anthers linear-oblong with tailed auricles. Style arms truncate or convex with short to long marginal papillae and often with a central tuft of longer papillae. Achenes cylindrical, ribbed, pubescent. Pappus stramineous or rufescent, white, capillary, simple or barbellate.

Endemic to Sino-Himalayan region; ca 50 species, 19 in India.


1a. Climbing herbs 16. Synotis tetrantha
b. Erect herbs, undershrubs or shrubs 2
2a. Capitula homogamous, discoid 3
b. Capitula heterogamous, radiate 6
3a. Glabrous to sparsely pubescent herbs or shrubs 4
1a. Floccose tomentose herbs or shrubs 5
4a. Leaves elliptic to elliptic-oblong, caudate-acuminate; capitula 2 - 3-bracteolate 6. Synotis borii
b. Leaves broadly elliptic, acute; capitula ebracteolate 15. Synotis simonsii
5a. Densely fulvous white tomentose shrubs; leaves coriaceous; pappus ca 5 mm long, copious 12. Synotis nagensium
b. Thinly floccose tomentose herbs; leaves membranous; pappus 2 - 2.5 mm long, scanty 7. Synotis brevipappa
6a. Ray florets inconspicuous and filiform 14. Synotis saluenensis
b. Ray florets conspicuous 7
7a. Leaves subrosulate at the base of the inflorescencs 8
b. Leaves distributed all along the stem 10
8a. Leaves not winged 19. Synotis wallichii
b. Leaves winged 9
9a. Involucral bracts 5; ray florets 2.5 - 5.5 mm long 3. Synotis alata
b. Involucral bracts 8; ray florets 5 - 5.5 mm long 2. Synotis ainsliaeifolia
10a. Ray floret only one 1. Synotis acuminata
b. Ray florets more than one 11
11a. Leaves coriaccous 9. Synotis jowaiensis
b. Leaves not coriaccous 12
12a. Glandular pubescent, reddish brown herbs; ray florets 2 4. Synotis auriculata
b. Glabrous to sparsely pubescent or loosely to densely white tomentose or reddish hairy herbs or shrubs; ray florets more than 2 13
13a. Capitula on long, slender. filiform peduncle 18. Synotis vagans
b. Capitula on short, stout peduncle 14
14a. Sparcely pubescent, scrambling to erect, flexuous, slender shrubby herbs; involucre cylindrical 17. Synotis triligulata
b. Loosely to densely white tomentose: or reddish hairy, erect, stout shrubs; involucre campanulate 15
15a. Reddish hairy undershrubs; capitula deep yellow 11. Synotis lushaensis
b. Loosely to densely white tomentose or glandular pubescent undershrubs or shrubs; capitula yellow 16
16a. Leaves sessile, glabrous 5. Synotis bhot
b. Leaves petioiled, not glabrous 17
17a. Glandular pubescent undershrubs; leaves, ovate-elliptic to linear-lanceolate 10. Synotis kunthiana
b. Tomentose shrubs; leaves oblong-ovate, elliptic, broadly obovate, lanceolate or elliptic-oblong 18
18a. Greenish white tomentose and reddish pubescent shrubs; leaves oblong-ovate to elliptic; achenes sparsely pubescent 13. Synotis rufinervis
b. Densely white tomentose shrubs; leaves broadly to narrowly obovate; achcnes glabrous 8. Synotis cappa

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