Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Herbs, annual or perennial, milky; stems stout, usually glabrous. Leaves radical as well as cauline, alternate, usually obovate or obovate-elongate or spathulate, denticulate or nmcinate-pinnatifid; toothed or pinnatifid; lobes often crisped and toothed or spinulose; cauline leaves linear-oblong. Heads usually campanulate or broadly cylindric, peduncled; peduncle bracteate. Involucral bracts many seriate; outer ovate or ovate-cordate, thinly herbaceous; inner subequal , oblong or linear oblong or linear- oblanceolate. Ligules usually yellow; corolla 5-toothed. Stamens 5, appendaged; anthers slender, base sagittate. Stigmatic branches slender. Achenes oblong, truncate at both ends with rounded or raised ribs, constricted at the tip. Pappus white, many seriate, slender, simple, soft.

Europe, N. Africa, W. Asia and Canaries from tropical to subtropical regions; ca 15 species, 1 in India.




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