Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Woody climbers, shrublets, shrubs or trees; indumentum of appressed medifixed (T-shaped) hairs often mixed with simple hairs. Leaves usually opposite, rarely alternate or verticillate, mostly petioled, rarely sessile, simple, mostly entire, rarely sinuateserrate or lobate; glands often present on petiole or on lower surface or margins of leaves; stipules deciduous, more rarely absent, sometimes large, connate and more or less persistent in leaf-axils. Inflorescence often terminal, sometimes axillary, racemose, corymbose or umbellate. Flowers bisexual, rarely polygamous, actinomorphic to zygomorphic; pedicels articulate, bracteolate; disk inconspicuous. Calyx usually 5-partite; segments imbricate, very rarely valvate, 1 or more furnished with a large gland, rarely eglandular. Petals 5, clawed or not, mostly equal, fimbriate or dentate. Stamens usually 10, equal or 1 or more longer than the rest; filaments often connate at base; anthers 2-locular, introrse, dehiscing lengthwise. Ovary superior, generally 3-locular, rarely 2- or 4-locular; ovules 1 in each locule; styles mostly 3, rarely 2 or 4, free, rarely connate, very rarely solitary and then other locules without styles; stigma terminal or subterminal, inconspicuous. Fruit a schizocarp; mericarps mostly winged in various ways (samara); seeds without endosperm; embyro mostly straight, rarely curved; cotyledons often unequal.

Tropical America, Old World tropics and subtropics; ca 60 genera and ca 80 species, in India 2 genera and 23 species indigenous and 6 genera and 13 species cultivated.

Literature. CANDOLLE, (1824). Malpighiaceae. Prodr. 1: 577 - 592. JACOBS, M. (1955). Malpighiaceae. In: STEENIS, Fl. Males. ser. 1.5(2): 125 - 145. LOBREAU, D. (l967). Contribution a 'l'etude du pollen des Malpighiaceae d' Afrique. Pollen et Spores 9(2): 241 - 277. NASIR, Y. (l973). Malpighiaccae. In: NASIR, E. & S.I. ALI, Fl. W. Pakistan 45: 1 - 4. NIEDENZU, F. (1928). Malpighiaceae. In: ENGLER, Pflanzenr. 91, 93, 94: (IV 141): 1 - 246, 247 - 572, 573 - 870. fig. 1 - 48.


1a. Climbers or stragglers; fruits winged 2
b. Erect shrubs or small trees; fruits wingless 6
2a. Stipules free, inserted on stem between petioles, sometimes reduced or absent; indigenous 3
b. Stipules connate with petiole-base; cultivated 4
3a. Flower. actinomorphic; styles 3; samaras surrounded by a disk-like lateral wing 1. Aspidopterys
b. Flowers zygomorphic; style 1 (rarely 2); samaras with one long median wing and two shorter lateral winga 2. Hiptage
4a. Samaras stellately winged; lateral wings well developed 8. Tristellateia
b. Samaras winged but not stellate; lateral wings suppressed 5
5a. Inflorescence racemose or paniculate or flowers solitary at ends of branchlets; style subulate, hooked 5. Heteropteris
b. Inflorescence umbellate or corymbose; style produced into foliaceous hook 7. Stigmaphyllon
6a. Leaves herbaceous, each with 2 glands at base; calyx eglandular 4. Galphimia
b. Leaves coriaceous, glandular; calyx glandular 7
7a. Filaments hairy and bearded at base; cotyledons terete 3. Byrsonima
b. Filaments glabrous; cotyledons plano-convex 6. Malpighia

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