Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Herbs, biennial or perennial with milky latex; stems erect, glabrous or sparsely hairy, solitary or branched, grooved, sometimes fleshy. Leaves usually alternate, linear or linear-lanceolate, often with rounded, sheathed base, finely glabrous or sparsely hairy, stem clasping. Heads broadly campanulate or bell shaped or cylindric, erect; peduncle thickened at the base of involucre, long, erect, thick. Involucral bracts 1-seriate, long, herbaceous, acute or acuminate, often connate at base. Ligules usually yellow, purple or blue, 5-toothed. Stamens 5, appendaged; anthers slender, acuminate, base sagittate. Style slender; stigma bifid. Achenes slender, strongly 5 - 20 ribbed, with a slender, elongate or stout beak, smooth or strongly muricate. Pappus brown, dirty white or pale yellow, 1-seriate, feathery, connate at base.

In Europe, N. Africa, temperate and subtropical Asia; ca 70 species, 5 in India.


1a. Biennials; stems 20-60 cm high; ligules with purple striations 3. Tragopogon kashmirianus
b. Perennials; stems 10-100 cm high; ligules without purple striations 2
2a. Stems finely glabrous, usually with solitary scapes; leaves linear 3
b. Stems glabrous or hairy, usually branched; leaves mostly linear-lanceolate 4
3a. Achenes 1.5-2 cm long, subcompresaed, beak stout; pappus 1.5-2 cm long 4. Tragopogon orientalis
b. Achenes 3-5 cm long; beak long, thickened; pappus 2.5-3.0 cm long 5. Tragopogon sinuatum
4a. Heads 2.5-8 x l.5-3.0 cm, glabrous; achenes 2.5-3.5 cm long with a long beak, strongly muricate 1. Tragopogon dubius
b. Heads 2.5-4 x 0.8-1.5 cm, glabrous or sparsely hairy; achenes 1-1.5 cm long, shortly beaked, smooth 2. Tragopogon gracilis

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