Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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R. Mathur

Trees, shrubs or woody climbers. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple, entire, rarely subentire, lobed or toothed, exstipulate. Inflorescence various: axillary, rarely terminal spikes, cymes, corymbose cymes or heads, sometimes flowers fewer and then in fascicles, rarely solitary. Flowers regular, unisexual and then plants dioecious or bisexual, 4 - 5-merous, rarely 3 - 6-merous; pedicels when present articulated above. Calyx small, connate below into a tube, 4 - 6-lobed, lobes imbricate, rarely valvate, generally persistent. Petals 4 - 6, free or connate below or forming a tube, mostly valvate, rarely absent. Stamens as many as the petals, antisepalous; filaments free or borne on the corolla tube and alternate with its lobes, often hairy below the anthers; anthers basifixed, dehiscing by longitudinal slits or numerous apical pores. Disc absent or rarely present, and then cup-shaped or ringlike. Ovary 1-loculed, rarely 2-loculed; ovules usually 2, pendulous; style short or lacking; stigma entire, crenate or lobed. Fruit drupaceous, 1-seeded, oblong or ellipsoid, often laterally compressed, rarely winged. Seeds with copious endosperm; embryo usually small and straight.

Pantropical, a few species also occuring in subtropical and temperate regions of Asia, Africa, S. America and Australia; ca 58 genera and 400 species, 11 genera and 16 species in India.

Notes. It is closely allied to the family Aquifoliaceae, but mainly differs In having 1-loculed ovary (usually the other 2 locules become aborted).

Literature. CHUANG, HSHAN (1981) Icacinaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Pop. Sinicae 46: ii-iv, 37-65. HOWARD, R.A. (1940) Studies of the Icacinaceae, Preliminary Taxonomic notes: Key to Genera. J. Arn. Arb. 21: 461-488. HOWARD, R.A. (1942) Studies of the Icacinaceae-II. J. Arn. Arb. 23: 55-78. SLEUMER, H. (1969). Materials Icacinaceae of Asia, Malesia and adjacent areas. Blumea 17: 181-263. SLEUMER, H. (1971) Icacinaceae, Fl. Males., Ser. 1.7(1): 1-87.


1a. Trees or shrubs 2
b. Woody climbers 7
2a. Flowers unisexual: plants dioccious 3
b. Flowers bisexual 5
3a. Under surface of leaves and young branches stellately hairy; calyx free or united at base only 8. Platea
b. Leaves and young branches glabrous; calyx united into a cup-shaped structure 4
4a. Filaments thick, flattened and hairy above; drupe ovoid-oblong 3. Gomphandra
b. Filaments filiform, glabrous; drupe laterally compressed 2. Codiocarpus
5a. Disc absent; ovary oblique 1. Apodytes
b. Disc cup-shaped; ovary straight 6
6a. Petals villous within 7. Nothapodytes
b. Petals glabrous within 11. Stemonurus
7a. Leaves opposite 4. Iodes
b. Leaves alternate 8
8a. Leaves entire, glabrous; drupe ellipsoid 10. Sarcostigma
b. Leaves lobed or dentate, pubescent; drupe laterally compressed 9
9a. Leaves penninerved; calyx absent 9. Pyrenacantha
b. Leaves palmately nerved below; calyx present 10
10a. Petals free; anthers minute 6. Natsiatum
b. Petals united to form a tube; anthers oblong, exceeding filaments in lentgh 5. Miquelia

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