Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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B.V. Shetty and Paramjit Singh

Climbing or erect shrubs, sometimes herbaceous, rarely small trees. Tendrils usually present, leaf-opposed, simple or branched, sometimes with adhesive discs at the tips. Leaves alternate. simple, sometimes palmately lobed. or palmately or pinnately compound, stipulate. Inflorescence leaf-opposed. axillary or pseudo-tenninal, sometimes cirrhiferous, usually cymose or paniculate. Flowers small, regular, usually 4- or 5-merous, bisexual or unisexual, the parts hypogynous. Calyx cupular or saucer-shaped, entire, dentate or lobed. Petals usually free, sometimes distally coherent and calyptrately caducous. valvate, hooded at apex. Stamens antipetalous; filaments slender; anthers introrse; pollen tricolporate. Disc intrastaminal, adnate to ovary, annular or cupular. sometimes of 4 distinct glands. Carpels 2, syncarpous; ovary 2-loculate, superior, usually sunken in the disc; ovules 2 in each locule, anatropous or apotropous; style short or absent; stigma simple, subcapitate or sometimes 2- or 4-fid. Fruit a 1-4 -seeded berry. Seeds smooth or rugose, usually with a longitudinal groove on either side of the linear raphe on adaxial surface and with a chalazal knot on abaxial surface; embryo minute, straight; cotyledons small; endosperm copious, oily and proteinaceous.

Widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics throughout the world, with ranges extending into the North and South temperate regions; ca 13 genera and ca 800 species, 8 genera and 63 species in India.

Literature. LATIFF, A. (1981) Studies in Malesian Vitaceae V. The genus Cayratia in the Malay Peninsula. Sains Malaysiana 10: 129-139. LATIFF, A. (1982) Studies in Malesian Vitaceae I -IV. Federation Mus. Journ. 27: 41-93. LATIFF, A. (1982); Studies in Malesian Vitaceae V. The Malay Peninsula species of Cissus. Malay Nat. J. 35: 197-207. NAIR, N.C. (1970) Review of embryology of Vitaceae. Bull. Indian Nat. Sci. Acad. 41: 174-179. NAIR, N.C. & K.V. MANI (1960) Organography and floral anatomy of some species of Vitaceae. Phytomorphology 10: 138-144. SHEITY, B.V. (1958). Cytotaxonomical studies in Vitaceae. Bibiliogr. Genet. 18; 167· 272. SHETTY, B.V. & P. SINGH (1988) The Vitaceae in Rheede's Hortus Malabaricus. Taxon 37: 169-174. SHETTY, B.V. & P. SINGH (1989) Notes on Vitaceae in India and some neighbouring regions. Kew Bull. 44: 469-478. SINGH, P. & B.V. SHETTY (1986) Nomenclature notes on Vitaceae of (ndian subcontinent. Taxon 35: 596-597.


1a. Petals cohering at apex and falling off as a cup at anthesis; leaves always simple 8. Vitis
b. Petals free. expanding at anthesis; leaves simple or compound 2
2a. Flowers 5-merous 3
b. Flowers 4-merous 5
3a. Inflorescences tendril-bearing 1. Ampelocissus
b. Inflorescences not tendril-bearing 4
4a. Leaves palmately 3-5-foliolate; tendrils with disc-like adhesive tips; nectariferous disc obscure, reduced and fused with base of ovary 6. Parthenocissus
b. Leaves simple or pinnate; tendrils without disc-like adhesive tips; nectariferous disc conspicuous, cupular. distinct at least in the upper part 2. Ampelopsis
5a. Flowers unisexual; stigma 4-lobed 7. Tetrastigma
b. Flowers bisexual; stigma simple or 2-fid 6
6a. Flower buds flask-shaped; nectariferous disc of 4, free glands 5. Cyphostemma
b. Flower-buds globose or oblong; nectariferous disc entire 7
7a. Inflorescences axillary; berries 2-4 -seeded; endosperm T or N-shaped in cross section 3. Cayratia
b. Inflorescences leaf-opposed; berries 1-2-seeded; endosperm M- or., - shaped in cross section 4. Cissus

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