Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Dali Chandra and S.K. Mukherjee

Trees or shrubs, rarely lianas, usually oleoresinous (often acrid), monoecious, dioecious or polygamous. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple or pinnately compound; stipules absent or vestigial. Flowers small, bracteate, di- or monochlamydeous, regular, unisexual and or bisexual, usually in terminal or axillary panicles. Sepals 3 - 5 (-7), usually connate below, rarely wholly connate into a calyx, closed in bud and irregularly splitting at anthesis, often valvate, caducous or persistent, rarely accrescent. Petals 3 - 5 (-7), distinct, imbricate, rarely valvate, sometimes accrescent, rarely absent. Disc annular or cupular, entire or lobed, rarely produced into a gynophore or obsolete. Stamens as many as petals, or fewer or more to numerous, some often abortive forming staminodes, biseriate or uniseriate, distinct or basally connate, inserted on or beneath disc; anthers tetrasporangiate, basi- or dorsitixed; pollen tricolporate or triporate. Carpel in male flower obsolete or absent, in female or bisexual flowers (2-) 3 - 5 (-12), syncarpous (often 1, rarely 5 locules develop), rarely apocarp'ous, usually 1 fertile; ovary superior or inferior, sometimes semi-inferior; ovule 1 in each locule, pendulous from top or side or from an ascending funicle ariSing from base of ovary wall; styles connate, or distinct and divergent; stigmas as many as carpels. Fruit usually a Drupe, rarely a false Drupe with 2-5 stones, or sometimes a nut placed on or more or less embedded within fleshy hypocarp. Seeds exalbuminous; cotyledons 2, plano-convex.

Mainly tropical and subtropical, a few temperate; ca 77 genera and 700 species, 23 genera and 68 species in India.

Literature. BARKLEY, F.A. (1957) Generic key to the sumac family (Anacardiaceae). Lloydia 20: 255-265. DING HOU, (1978) Florae Malesianae Praecunores LVI. Anacardiaceae. Blumea 24: 1 - 41. DING HOU, (1978). Anacardiaceae.ln: Fl. Malesiana. 8: 395 - 548. NASIR, Y.J. (1983). Anacardiaceae.ln: Fl. Pak. 152: 1 - 22. MUKHERJEE S.K. & DALI CHANDRA (1983). An outline of the revision of Indian Anacardiaceae. Bull. Bot. Surv. India 25: 52-61.


1a. Carpels free or solitary; leaves simple 2
b. Carpels united (rarely one); leaves rarely simple 9
2a. Carpels 5, free 3. Buchanania
b. Carpel solitary 3
3a. Leaves opposite 4
b. Leaves alternate 5
4a. Leaves serrate; flowers unisexual 6. Dobinea
b. Leaves entire; flowers male and bisexual 2. Bouea
5a. Fruit fleshy; one stamen fertile, rest sterile 12. Mangifera
b. Fruit not fleshy; all or most stamens fertile 6
6a. Fruits a reniform nut, on a flesby bypocarp; one stamen sterile, rest fertile 1. Anacardium
b. Fruits a Drupes; all stamens fresh 7
7a. Petals caducous, not enlarging in fruit 9. Gluta
b. Petals accrescemt 8
8a. Gynophore present; Drupes stipitate 13. Melanorrhoea
b. Gynophore absent; fruit sessile 23. Swintonia
9a. Carpels usually 5; ovary 5-(rarely l)-loculed 10
b. Carpels 3, (rarely 4); ovary 1-loculed 14
10a. Fruit 5-loculed; styles 5 11
b. Fruit 1-loculed; style 1,(rarely 5) 13
11a. Styles cunnate 7. Dracontomelon
b. Styles free above 12
12a. Leaflets with submarginal veins; mesocarp fibrous; petals velvate 22. Spondias
b. Leaflets without submarginal veins; mesocarp not fibrous; petals, imbricate 4. Choerospondias
13a. Climbing shrubs; flowers both unisexual and bisexual; petals imbricate 16. Pegia
b. Trees; flowers bisexual; petals valvate 21. Solenocarpus
14a. Ovary inferior (superior in semecarpus) or semiinferior; fruit sunken in a cupular or tubular hollow' receptacle; leaves simple 15
b. Ovary superior; fruit without fleshy peduncle; leaves simple and compound 17
15a. Drupes seated on enlarged hypocarp 20. Semecarpus
b. Drupes enclosed within enlarged fleshy hyprocarp 16
16a. Styles 3; petals valvate 10. Holigarna
b. Style 1; petals imbricate 8. Drimycarpus
17a. Flowers haplochlamydeous or naked 17. Pistacia
b. Flowers diplochlamydeous 18
18a. Flowers 4-merous 19
b. Flowers 5-merous 21
19a. Sepals accrescent; drupes globose 15. Parishia
b. Sepals not accrescent; drupes laterally compressed 20
20a. Leaves simple; stamens 4 14. Nothopegia
b. Leaves compound; stamens 8 11. Lannea
21a. Pedicels plumose; styles lateral; leaves simple 5. Cotinus
b. Pedicels not plumose; styles terminal; leaves pinnate 22
22a. Stamens 5; rachis not winged 18. Rhus
b. Stamens 10; rachis winged 19. Schinus

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