Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

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Gen. Pl. 117. 1789

Plants annual, biennial or perennial herbs or shrubs, the sole tree genus being Wightia Wall., often semi-parasitic, rarely quite parasitic on the roots of members of the family Gramineae; stems prostrate, decumbent or erect. Leaves usually opposite, rarely alternate or whorled, exstipulate, simple, entire or pinnately-lobed or incised into different shapes, mostly penninerved. Inflorescence racemes, or cymes, or spikes, or flowers solitary, axillary. Flowers bisexual, usually zygomorphic, occasionally subactinomorphic and almost regular as in Verbascum, often bracteate. Calyx generally campanulate or tubular, divided to various extent, 4–5-lobed, sometimes 2-lipped. Corolla 2-lipped, 4–5-lobed, valvate or imbricate in bud, sometimes spurred or saccate at base. Stamens inserted on the corolla tube, generally 4, the fifth one being completely suppressed or staminodal, or stamens 2 with the anterior one pair sometimes reduced to staminodes; didynamous, anterior filaments occasionally appendiculate at base; anthers variously shaped, free, less often connivent in pairs, cells distinct, rarely confluent to be 1-celled, longitudinally dehiscent, rarely poricidal. Ovary superior with a necter-secreting disk at base, sessile, 2-locular with axile placentation; disk annular, cupular or glandular; ovules many in each locule, anatropous or amphitropous; style simple, terminal; stigma 2-lobed, or capitate, or 2-lamellate, or dilated. Fruits capsular, generally 2-valved, sometimes 3–4-valved, septicidally, loculicidally or poricidal dehiscent, rarely an indehiscent berry; seeds numerous to few, small, variously shaped with lateral or ventral hilum, endospermous; embryo straight or curved.

Distrib. Cosmopolitan, mainly distributed in Holarctic and the tropical mountains, 306 genera and c. 5850 species (Fischer, 2004); 64 genera, 337 species, 30 subspecies and 22 varieties in India. In addition, there are 4 doubtful species and 2 cultivated species in India.

Literature. AMAN, N., G.H. DAR & A.R. NAQSHI (2003). Scrophulariaceae of the Kashmir Himalaya. Valley Book House, Srinagar. BENTHAM, G. (1835). Scrophulariaceae Indicae - A synopsis of the East Indian Scrophulariacae. James Ridgway and Sons, London. BENTHAM, G. (1846). Scrophulariaceae. In: Candolle, A.L.P.P. de (ed.) Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 10: 186–586, Sumptibus Victoris Masson, Paris. BLATTER, E. & E. HALLBERG (1918). New Indian Scrophulariaceae and some notes on some orders. J. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. 25(3): 416–429. FISCHER, E. (2004). Scrophulariaceae. In: Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants 7: 333–432, Berlin: Springer. GHAZANFAR, S.A., F.N. HEPPER & D. PHILCOX (2008). Flora of Tropical East Africa: Scrophulariaceae. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. HOOKER, J.D. (1883–1884). Scrophulariaceae. In: Hooker, J.D. (ed.) Flora of British India 4: 246–319, L. Reeve and Co., London. MILL, R.R. (2001). Scrophulariaceae. In: Grierson A.J.C & D.G. Long (eds.), Flora of Bhutan 2(3): 1082–1236, Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh. PENNELL, F.W. (1943). The Scrophulariaceae of the Western Himalaya. Monogr. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 5: 1–163. RAHMANZADEH, R., K. MÜLLER, E. FISCHER, D. BARTELS & T. BORSCH (2004). Linderniaceae and Gratiolaceae are further lineages distinct from Scrophulariaceae (Lamiales). Pl. Biol. (Stuttgart) 7: 1–11.

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