Botanical Survey of India | Flora of India

JSP Page
Glochidion J.R.Forst. & G.Forst., nom. cons.


Shrubs or trees, monoecious, evergreen, glabrous or pubescent with simple, multicellular hairs; branchlets usually anfractuous when young. Leaves simple, alternate or distichous, symmetrical or asymmetrical, entire, penninerved, short petiolate; stipules subpersistent. Inflorescences axillary or occasionally slightly to markedly supra-axillary and/or pedunculate, fasciculate, unisexual or bisexual, few to many-flowered, often leafless when in fruiting simulating racemose inflorescences. Male flowers: pedicellate; sepals 3 + (2 -) 3, free, imbricate; petals and disc absent; stamens 3 - 8, usually sessile with filaments connate into an oblong mass; antherthecae linear and longitudinally dehiscent; connectives produced into an erect appendage; pistillode absent. Female flowers: sessile or shortly pedicellate; calyx with 3 + (2 or) 3 free sepals or occasionally connate into a cupular, campanulate or obconic structure with 3 - 6 irregular lobes, imbricate; petals and disc absent; staminodes absent; ovary 3 - 15-locular, each locule biovulate; styles as many as the locules, usually connate into a columnar or clavate or sometimes conical, globose, turbinate or obconic structure, toothed or lobed at the apex or occasionally free and filiform, triangular, oblong, deltoid or globose and erect to connivent. Fruits capsular, seated on the non-accrescent calyx and crowned by the style column, usually depressed or sometimes subglobose, 3 - 15-locular, unlobed or shallowly to deeply lobed with the lobes rounded to bilobulate, crustaceous or coriaceous; seeds 3 - 15, usually triquetrous or hemispherical, laterally compressed, with a red arillate coat; albumen fleshy; cotyledons flat.

Tropical Asia to Northern Australia and Polynesia, a few species in Madagascar and tropical America, ca 320 species; 22 species in India.

Literature. CHAKRABARTY, T. & M. GANGOPADHYAY (1995). The genus Glochidion (Euphorbiaceae) in the Indian subcontinent. J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 19(1): 173 - 234.

Notes. The chromosome numbers of the 6 species investigated so far have the haploid number of n = 26. The genus is thus based on x = 13.

The pollen grains are stephanocolporate with 4 apertures, spheroidal to prolate spheroidal in shape; P X E = 25 x 25 μm; P/E = 1.06 μm; colpus narrow, slit-like, endoaperture circular or lolongate. Exine reticulate (Punt, Wentia 7: 1 - 116. 1962).



KEY TO THE SPECIES


1a. Branchlets and or under surface of leaves pubescen 2
b. Branchlets and or under surface of leaves glabrous 13
2 a. Inflorescences supra axillary and or pedunculate 21. Glochidion thomsonii
b. nflorescences axillary and sessile 3
3 a. Fruits unlobed or obscurely lobed 4
b. Fruits shallowly to deeply lobed 5
4 a. Male pedicels 10 - 20 mm long; fruits indehiscent, 10 - 18 mm in diam. with 8 - 10 longitudinal grooves 17. Glochidion oblatum
b. Male pedicels up to 10 mm long; fruits dehiscent, mostly up to 10 mm in diam. 22. Glochidion zeylanicum
5a . Female calyx cupular, campanulate or obconic, with 4 - 6 irregular lobes 6
b. Female calyx not as above, comprising of (5 -) 6 more or less free sepals 7
6 a. Leaves entirely glabrous; styles connate into a clavate, turbinate or obconic structure, usually with stout apical lobes 5. Glochidion candolleanum
b. Leaves sparsely pilose on major nerves beneath; styles connate into a subglobose mass or sometimes free and deltoid, triangular or globose 10. Glochidion hohenackeri
7 a. Ovary and fruits 8 - 12 (- 15)-locular 8
b. Ovary and fruits 3 - 6-locular 9
8 a. Leaves often glaucescent beneath; tertiary nerves conspicuous on upper surface; style distinct, forming a ring, 0.2 – 0.5 mm long; fruits pedicellate 16. Glochidion multiloculare
b. Leaves not glaucescent beneath; tertiary nerves inconspicuous on the upper surface; styles connate into a cone, ca 1 mm long; fruits sessile 6. Glochidion coccineum
9 a. Leaves beneath glabrous 12. Glochidion karnaticum
b. Leaves beneath puberulous at least on midrib 10
10a. Leaves not glaucous; minor nervules conspicuously raised beneath 9. Glochidion heyneanum
b. Leaves conspicuously glaucous at least on the under surface; minor nervules inconspicuous or faint but never raised beneath 11
11 a. Leaves rounded, obtuse, truncate or apiculate at apex; fruits 13 – 16 mm in diam. 2.2. Glochidion andamanicum
b. Leaves mostly caudate or acuminate or often apiculate at apex; fruits 5 – 12 mm in diam. 12
12a. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, whitish beneath when dry; hairs on the lower surface appressed; male pedicels 5 - 8 mm long; fruits 6 – 8 mm in diam. 1. Glochidion acuminatum
b. Leaves not narrow, ovate, obovate or broadly elliptic; hairs on the lower surface erect or ascending; male pedicels 8 - 12 mm long; fruits 8 -12 mm in diam. 18. Glochidion nubigenum
13a. Inflorescence supra-axillary and/or pedunculate 14
b. Inflorescences axillary and sessile 16
14 a. Fruits unlobed or obscurely lobed 21. Glochidion thomsonii
b. Fruits prominently lobed 15
15a. Leaves glossy; styles columnar or conical, longer than broad; fruits 15 - 30 mm in diam. 14. Glochidion lanceolarium
b. Leaves not glossy; styles turbinate, subglobose or cylindric, as long as broad; fruits up to 10 mm in diam. 3. Glochidion bourdillonii
16a. Female calyx cupular, campanulate or obconic with 4 - 6 irregular lobes 17
b. Female calyx not as above, comprising of (5 -) 6, more or less free sepals 18
17a. Styles connate into clavate, turbinate or obconic structures, usually with stout apical lobes 5. Glochidion candolleanum
b. Styles connate into a subglobose mass or sometimes free and deltoid, triangular or globose 17. Glochidion hohenackeri
18a. Fruits unlobed 8. Glochidion ellipticum
b. Fruits shallowly to deeply lobed 19
19a. Ovary and fruits 8 - 15-locular 20
b. Ovary and fruits 3 - 7-locular 22
20a. Tertiary nerves of leaves predominantly perpendicular to the midrib; style free 16. Glochidion multiloculare
b. Tertiary nerves of leaves not as above; styles connate 21
21a. Plants of coastal habitats; leaves mostly obovate to orbicular, obtuse, rounded to emarginate at apex; ovary and fruits 10 – 14-locular 15. Glochidion littorale
b. Plants not of coastal habitats; leaves mostly oblong, elliptic to lanceolate, apiculate to acuminate at apex; ovary and fruits 5 – 8-locular 14. Glochidion lanceolarium
22a. Fruits 15 - 30 mm in diam. 14. Glochidion lanceolarium
b. Fruits 4 - 18 mm in diam. 23
23a. Styles free 21. Glochidion thomsonii
b. Styles connate 24
24a. Styles subglobose, button-like or discoid 19. Glochidion sphaerogynum
b. Styles columnar, conical, clavate or obconic 25
25a. Fruits shallowly lobed 26
b. Fruits deeply lobed 27
26a. Leaves glaucous beneath; fruits subglobose, 4 - 5 mm in diam. 12. Glochidion karnaticum
b. Leaves not glaucous beneath; fruits depressed, 6 - 10 mm in diam. 8. Glochidion ellipticum
27a. Fruiting pedicels 6 - 12 mm long 4. Glochidion calocarpum
b. Fruiting pedicels 1 - 6 mm long or fruits sessile 28
28a. Fruits 14 - 18 mm in diam. (species of Andaman Islands) 29
b. Fruits 6 - 15 mm in diam. (species outside Andaman Islands) 31
29a. Styles clavate 11. Glochidion jarawae
b. Styles columnar to subconical 30
30 a. Anthers 3; sepals puberulous; styles 1 - 1.5 mm long; fruits sessile 2. Glochidion andamanicum
b. Anthers 5 or 6; sepals glabrous; styles 2 - 3 mm long; fruiting pedicels 0.5 - 3 mm long 20. Glochidion subsessile
31a. Ovary and fruits glabrous 13. Glochidion khasicum
b. Ovary and fruits pubescent 7. Glochidion daltonii


JSP Page
  • Search